Tag Archives: Stars

How many stars eventually collide as black holes? The universe has a budget for that. | Vanderbilt News

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Since the breakthrough in gravitational wave astronomy back in 2015, scientists have been able to detect more than a dozen pairs of closely located black holes—known as binary black holes—by their collisions into each other, due to gravity. However, scientists still debate how many of these black holes are born from stars, and how they are able to get close enough for a collision within the lifetime of our universe.

Now, a promising new study developed by one Vanderbilt astrophysicist may give us a method for finding the number of available stars in the history of the universe that collide as binary black holes. 

The research, which appears today in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, will help future scientists interpret the underlying population of stars and test the formation theories of all colliding black holes across cosmic history.

Illustration of black hole collision
Artist’s conception shows the collisions of two black holes similar to those detected by LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Image credit: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet)

“Researchers up until now have theorized the formation and existence for pairs of black holes in the universe, but the origins of their predecessors, stars, still remains a mystery,” said Vanderbilt astrophysicist and lead author of the study Karan Jani. “With this study, we did a forensic study of colliding black holes using the astrophysical observations that are currently available. In the process, we developed a fundamental constraint, or budget, which tells us about the fraction of stars since the beginning of the universe that are destined to collide as black holes.”

Leveraging Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which tells us how black holes interact and eventually collide, Jani and co-author Abraham Loeb at Harvard University used LIGO events on record to take an inventory of the universe’s time and space resources at any given point. They then developed the constraints accounting for each step in the binary black hole process: the number of available stars in the universe, the process of each star transitioning to an individual black hole, and the detection of the eventual collision of those black holes—picked up hundreds of millions of years later by LIGO as gravitational waves emitted by the impact.

“From the current observations, we find that 14 percent of all the massive stars in the universe are destined to collide as black holes. That’s remarkable efficiency on nature’s part,” added Jani. “These added constraints in our framework should help researchers trace the histories of black holes, answering old questions and undoubtedly opening up more exotic scenarios.”

The research is funded by the GRAVITY program at Vanderbilt, and supported in part by the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, which is funded by grants from the John Templeton Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

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How many stars eventually collide as black holes? The universe has a budget for that. | Vanderbilt News

[ad_1]

Since the breakthrough in gravitational wave astronomy back in 2015, scientists have been able to detect more than a dozen pairs of closely located black holes—known as binary black holes—by their collisions into each other, due to gravity. However, scientists still debate how many of these black holes are born from stars, and how they are able to get close enough for a collision within the lifetime of our universe.

Now, a promising new study developed by one Vanderbilt astrophysicist may give us a method for finding the number of available stars in the history of the universe that collide as binary black holes. 

The research, which appears today in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, will help future scientists interpret the underlying population of stars and test the formation theories of all colliding black holes across cosmic history.

Illustration of black hole collision
Artist’s conception shows the collisions of two black holes similar to those detected by LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Image credit: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet)

“Researchers up until now have theorized the formation and existence for pairs of black holes in the universe, but the origins of their predecessors, stars, still remains a mystery,” said Vanderbilt astrophysicist and lead author of the study Karan Jani. “With this study, we did a forensic study of colliding black holes using the astrophysical observations that are currently available. In the process, we developed a fundamental constraint, or budget, which tells us about the fraction of stars since the beginning of the universe that are destined to collide as black holes.”

Leveraging Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which tells us how black holes interact and eventually collide, Jani and co-author Abraham Loeb at Harvard University used LIGO events on record to take an inventory of the universe’s time and space resources at any given point. They then developed the constraints accounting for each step in the binary black hole process: the number of available stars in the universe, the process of each star transitioning to an individual black hole, and the detection of the eventual collision of those black holes—picked up hundreds of millions of years later by LIGO as gravitational waves emitted by the impact.

“From the current observations, we find that 14 percent of all the massive stars in the universe are destined to collide as black holes. That’s remarkable efficiency on nature’s part,” added Jani. “These added constraints in our framework should help researchers trace the histories of black holes, answering old questions and undoubtedly opening up more exotic scenarios.”

The research is funded by the GRAVITY program at Vanderbilt, and supported in part by the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, which is funded by grants from the John Templeton Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

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Paddy Energy and Poker Stars house owners to create on-line playing chief

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DUBLIN (Reuters) – The house owners of Paddy Energy Betfair and Poker Stars have agreed to merge in an all-share deal that may create the world’s largest on-line betting and playing firm by income to reap the benefits of the opening up of U.S. markets.

FILE PHOTO: Paddy Energy emblem is seen behind a keyboard and playing cube on this illustration taken in Sarajevo, September 10, 2015. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/File Photograph

Flutter Leisure (FLTRE.I), previously generally known as Paddy Energy Betfair, is to mix with Nasdaq- and Toronto-listed Stars Group Inc (TSG) (TSGI.TO), proprietor of Poker Stars, the businesses mentioned on Wednesday.

Following the merger, shareholders of Flutter would personal roughly 54.64% of the brand new firm, with TSG shareholders proudly owning about 45.36%.

The merger is the most recent in a sequence of offers because the trade responds to the rising variety of gamblers utilizing on-line and cellular gadgets and the chance created by the comfort of guidelines on sports activities betting in the USA.

Shares in Flutter jumped 15 p.c in early buying and selling, whereas playing rivals GVC (GVC.L) and William Hill (WMH.L) had been additionally lifted by the prospect of additional consolidation.

Mixed annual revenues would have totaled 3.eight billion kilos ($4.7 billion) in 2018, making Flutter-TSG the most important on-line betting and gaming operator globally, the businesses mentioned.

Flutter CEO Peter Jackson, who will retain his function within the mixed group, mentioned the deal would “turbocharge” Flutter’s current technique and “present world-class capabilities throughout sports activities betting, gaming, every day fantasy sports activities and poker, in addition to higher geographical and product diversification.”

The merged group can have its headquarters in Dublin and its major itemizing in London.

FOX BACKING

The merged group shall be boosted by a partnership in the USA with FOX Sports activities, which can have the fitting to amass an 18.5% stake in Flutter’s FanDuel U.S. enterprise from 2021.

Dublin-based Flutter merged its U.S. enterprise with fantasy sports activities firm FanDuel final yr in a deal it mentioned would create the trade’s largest on-line enterprise in the USA.

TSG had bolstered its British operations final yr when it purchased Sky Betting & Gaming in a $4.7 billion deal.

Flutter has sharpened its concentrate on North America as the doubtless large U.S. market opens up and it faces increased taxes and elevated rules in its major British, Irish and Australian markets.

Betting trade Betfair and Paddy Energy, which runs excessive road betting outlets in addition to a web based enterprise, merged in 2016, though the mixing took longer than anticipated and a toll on product funding for a time.

The merger is predicted to ship pretax value synergies of 140 million kilos per yr, together with alternatives to cross-sell merchandise to 1 one other’s clients in worldwide markets and decrease finance prices, the businesses mentioned.

The deal can be anticipated to spice up Flutter’s underlying earnings per share by at the very least 50 p.c within the first full monetary yr following completion.

Beneath the phrases of the merger, TSG shareholders shall be entitled to 0.2253 new Flutter shares for every TSG share.

Reporting by Graham Fahy; Modifying by Muralikumar Anantharaman and Mark Potter

Our Requirements:The Thomson Reuters Belief Ideas.

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Fat To Fit | Aamir Khan Body Transformation | Dangal | In Cinemas Dec 23, 2016



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