Tag Archives: Physics

Nobel prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg dies at 88

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Physicist Steven Weinberg, the 1979 winner of the Nobel prize in physics with two different scientists for his or her work unlocking mysteries of tiny particles, has died at 88

Physicist Steven Weinberg, who received the Nobel prize in 1979 with two different scientists for his or her separate contributions unlocking mysteries of tiny particles and their electromagnetic interplay, has died at 88, the College of Texas at Austin mentioned Saturday.

A professor on the college because the 1980s, Weinberg died Friday in Austin, Texas, in keeping with his spouse Louise, mentioned UT spokesperson Christine Sinatra. The physicist had been hospitalized for a number of weeks, however a reason behind dying was not launched, in keeping with Sinatra.

“The passing of Steven Weinberg is a loss for The College of Texas and for society,” UT President Jay Hartzell mentioned in an announcement.

“Professor Weinberg unlocked the mysteries of the universe for hundreds of thousands of individuals, enriching humanity’s idea of nature and our relationship to the world,” Hartzell added.

In 1979, Weinberg shared the Nobel prize in physics with scientists Abdus Salam and Sheldon Lee Glashow. Their work improved the understanding of how the whole lot within the universe relates, in keeping with a UT assertion.

The work helped physicists unify two of the 4 forces of nature, subatomic forces referred to as nuclear forces, mentioned Sean Carroll, a theoretical physicist on the California Institute of Know-how.

“It’s all about understanding the legal guidelines of nature at a deep degree. We’re curious creatures and we need to know the way the universe round us works,” Carroll mentioned.

Weinberg’s work constructed on the work of Albert Einstein, in keeping with Columbia College string concept physicist Brian Greene.

“The thought was that each one forces of nature may really be the identical drive … it was this dream Einstein had, that all of it is likely to be entire,” Greene mentioned. “He drove this concept ahead. He pushed this concept ahead by displaying (two forces) have been the identical drive.”

Weinberg, Salam and Glashow — working individually — have been honored “for his or her contributions to the idea of the unified weak and electromagnetic interplay between elementary particles, together with … the prediction of the weak impartial present,” in keeping with the Nobel Prize web site.

A New York native, Weinberg was a researcher at Columbia College and the College of California, Berkeley, earlier in his profession. He then served on the school of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Know-how earlier than becoming a member of the UT college in 1982, instructing each physics and astronomy.

Weinberg is survived by his spouse and a daughter. Funeral companies weren’t introduced.

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Nanoscale origami: Smallest-ever, atomically precise structures set stage for quantum breakthroughs | Vanderbilt News

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If you think learning traditional paper origami is a difficult practice, try wrapping your head around origami on the atomic scale. 

In “Atomically-Precise, Custom-Design Origami Graphene Nanostructures,” published today in the journal Science, an international team of researchers have accomplished just that, using sophisticated and precise control of atoms to experiment with new structures and set the stage for future generations of breakthroughs in quantum technology.

“Under atomic-scale control of these graphene-based nanostructures, researchers are able to build fascinating new structures,” noted Vanderbilt University Distinguished Professor of Physics and Engineering Sokrates T. Pantelides who collaborated on the research. “In the future, these fundamental discoveries are likely to serve as groundwork for new devices our current generation can’t even begin to imagine.”

Prof. Sokrates Pantelides, of the Physics and Astronomy dept. (Vanderbilt University / Steve Green)

While the ancient art form of origami is currently used in large-scale applications, such as in architecture or battery design, researchers have long sought to apply origami techniques to small atomic structures, including graphene – a two-dimensional semimetal and “supermaterial” capturing the attention of researchers around the world for its properties of tensile strength, flexibility and impermeability – to name a few. However, technological limitations prevented researchers from using origami’s fine control to build and manipulate custom graphene structures.

A collaboration between Pantelides, University of Maryland Professor Min Ouyang, and a team of researchers at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing headed by Professor Hong-Jun Gao, the findings build on many years of investigations of carbon-based nanostructures, including the discovery of carbon nanotubes and the successful isolation of monolayer graphene, which was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics.

The experiments, conducted by Professor Hong-Jun Gao’s group in Beijing, use scanning tunneling microscope manipulation at low temperatures. These studies are the first to successfully and exactly fold and unfold graphene nano-islands in a variety of randomly chosen directions – each of which yields a complex nanostructure with distinct properties. 

The image below illustrates the construction (and deconstruction) of a well-defined, folded graphene-based nanostructure through the use of origami. 

Graphene-based nanostructure illustration
Illustration of atomically precise control of graphene-based nanostructure

As seen in the image, folding these small graphene fragments results in interesting structures, comprising a tubular edge, similar to the previously discovered carbon nanotubes, attached to a bilayer stack of graphene at a twisted angle. 

Some graphene nano-islands can be used to form so-called intramolecular junctions, which are key components for electronic devices. The researchers measured the electrical properties of the origami structures and used theoretical quantum calculations to clarify their atomic-scale structure and electronic properties, setting the stage for the construction of custom nanostructures with engineered quantum properties, ultimately novel devices and even quantum machines.

The work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Projects of China, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Work at Vanderbilt University was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work at the University of Maryland was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.

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[Biology] #everydayscience_biology 今日等我黎講下滲透(osmosis)啦 喺日常生活入面我地未必會成日都聽到滲透呢一樣野,但…

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今日等我黎講下滲透(osmosis)啦😆
喺日常生活入面我地未必會成日都聽到滲透呢一樣野,但係其實佢喺好多地方都進行緊。滲透係水分子經過半透膜擴散嘅一個現象。水分子會由高水勢嘅區域滲入去低水勢嘅區域,直至細胞入面同細胞外面嘅濃度達到平衡為止。
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細胞會藉住滲透作用黎吸到水分又或者係喪失水分。但係有可能會因為咁而得到過多嘅水分又或者係失去太多嘅水。
或者用個例子黎講會比較易明。當我地將細胞放入濃嘅鹽水入面,由於濃嘅鹽水入面水的含量比例比細胞質低,細胞入面嘅水會不斷咁向細胞外面滲透,導致細胞脫水同萎縮。相反,將細胞放入蒸餾水入面嘅話呢,由於細胞入面嘅水含量比例比蒸餾水低,外面嘅水分子會不斷咁向細胞入面滲透,導致細胞膨脹,甚至破裂。
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而對於植物細胞呢,因為佢地嘅細胞壁同細胞膜嘅滲透性唔一樣,當細胞外嘅濃度高過入面嘅時候,細胞會出現質壁分離嘅現象,即係細胞壁同細胞膜分離。但係當佢地吸返水之後就會出現質壁分離嘅復原現象。
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[Biology] #everydayscience_biology 其實part 2只係part 1嘅Eng version聽日會再有多啲補充 Osmosis…

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其實part 2只係part 1嘅Eng version🙈聽日會再有多啲補充😆
Osmosis refers to the net movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential through a differentially permeable membrane. Water potential refers to the tendency of a water molecule to move from one place to another.
Cells would gain or lose water by osmosis. However, osmosis may cause excessive water gain or water loss, which may affect the normal functioning of cells. When the cells gain too much water, the cell content is diluted. On the contrary, when the cells lose too much water, the cell content will be concentrated, and the viscosity increases.
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Take red blood cell as an example. When we put some red blood cells into concentrated saline solution, as the conc saline solution has a lower water potential, water in the cell leaves by osmosis, causing the cell to lose water and shrink. In contrast, when we put the red blood cells into distilled water, the cells will gain water by osmosis as the water potential of distilled water is higher than that of the cytoplasm. Water enters the cells by osmosis, causing them to swell, and even burst.
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For plant cells, as they have rigid cell walls, so they won’t burst. But plasmolysis occurs when they lose too much water, this causes the plant to lose turgidity. When they gain water again, they become turgid.
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Large Hadron Rap



Rappin’ about CERN’s Large Hadron Collider! Links below… Apparently YouTube fixed the sound! Still, Will Barras made two options trying to get around the original problems: Other YouTube:ht…

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum Song – by Emerson & Wong Yann (Singapore)



Emerson Foo & Wong Yann made an original music video on the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

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Flatland: The Movie – Official Trailer



FLATLAND 2: SPHERELAND now available at http://store.flatlandthemovie.com The official trailer for the new animated adventure – Flatland: The Movie. Adapted from the beloved classic by Edwin…

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THE SAGAN SERIES – The Frontier Is Everywhere

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY59wZdCDo0&w=580&h=385]

For more Facebook – http://www.facebook.com/thesaganseries Twitter – http://twitter.com/reidgower G+ – http://bit.ly/VpHzQh The Sagan Series is an educational project working in the hopes…

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