Tag Archives: mountains

Southern California sees summer season of mountain lion kittens

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A increase in mountain lion births has occurred this summer season in Southern California

THOUSAND OAKS, Calif. — A mountain lion child increase has occurred this summer season within the Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills west of Los Angeles.

13 kittens have been born to 5 mountain lion moms between Could and August, in response to the Santa Monica Mountains Nationwide Recreation Space.

It’s the primary time so many mountain lion dens have been discovered inside such a brief time period through the 18 years by which the area’s cougar inhabitants has been studied by the Nationwide Park Service.

Probably the most dens discovered beforehand in a single 12 months was 4, unfold throughout 10 months in 2015.

Biologists go to dens whereas the moms are away to carry out well being checks on kittens, decide intercourse and apply ear tags.

“This stage of copy is a good factor to see, particularly since half of our mountains burned nearly two years in the past through the Woolsey Hearth,” wildlife biologist Jeff Sikich mentioned in a press release.

“Will probably be fascinating to see how these kittens use the panorama within the coming years and navigate the numerous challenges, each pure and human-caused, they may face as they get older and disperse.”

The research is wanting into how the large cats survive in habitat fragmented by urbanization amid threats together with lack of genetic range, roadway deaths and poisons. They largely keep away from individuals.

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Key Atlantic Coast Pipeline permit heads to Supreme Court

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RICHMOND, Va. —
When plans for the 605-mile Atlantic Coast Pipeline were first unveiled in 2014, supporters of the natural gas project brimmed with enthusiasm and promises.

The pipeline would bring natural gas from West Virginia to growing markets in Virginia and North Carolina, and with it, would come economic development, thousands of jobs and reduced energy costs for consumers, supporters said.

A beaming Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe called it a “win-win,”saying it would be good for the environment,too, because it would help speed up the closing of aging coal plants.

Since then, the project hasfaced one setback after another, with legal challenges brought by environmental groups — prompting the dismissal or suspension of eight permits and halting construction for more than a year.

Now,three yearsbehind schedule, with a price tag that has nearly doubled to $8 billion, the project is headed to the U.S. Supreme Court for a hearingMonday on a critical permit.

Backed by the Trump administration, the project developers — Dominion Energy and Duke Energy — will ask the high court to reverse a federal appeals court ruling that threw out a permit needed for the pipeline to cross two national forests, including parts of the Appalachian Trail, the historic footpath that stretches from Georgia to Maine.

In its ruling, a three-judge panel of the Richmond-based 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals sharply criticized the U.S. Forest Service for granting a special-use permit to build the pipeline through parts of the George Washington and Monongahela National Forests, and to cross the Appalachian Trail.

The court found that the Forest Service did not have the statutory authority to approve the trail crossing and said the agency had “abdicated its responsibility to preserve national forest resources.”

The question before the Supreme Court is whether the Forest Service has authority to grant rights-of-way for gas pipelines through lands crossed by the Appalachian Trail within national forests.

The project developers, joined by U.S. Solicitor General Noel Francisco, say the answer is yes, arguing the Forest Service is the agency that holds jurisdiction over land in the George Washington National Forest. But the environmental groups say the answer is no because the 2,200-mile (3,540-kilometer) scenic trail is considered a unit of the National Park System and only Congress can approve such a crossing.

Under plans for the project, a 0.1-mile segment of the pipeline would cross about 700 feet (213 meters) beneath the Appalachian Trail.

That tiny segmentis a key component of the pipeline project’s route.

“It’s important because Dominion has really bet its project on this crossing point,” said Greg Buppert, a senior attorney with the Southern Environmental Law Center, which sued on behalf of the Sierra Club and other environmental groups.

Dominion spokeswoman Ann Nallo said the company chose that crossing point after consulting with federal agencies to determine the best route for the pipeline.

“Part of the determination involved the impact on the environment,” Nallo said.

In its ruling, the 4th Circuit found that the Forest Service had “serious environmental concerns” about the project that were “suddenly, and mysteriously, assuaged in time to meet a private pipeline company’s deadlines.”

Environmental groups say the pipeline would scar pristine landscapes, put numerous rivers and streams at risk of increased sedimentation and harm sensitive species.

The stakes are high for lead developer, Dominion, a dominant corporate power in Virginia politics and favorite landing spot for government officials. U.S. Attorney General Bill Barr spent a decade on the company’s board before joining the Trump administration.

The company is counting on the project to help balance its books after aggressive purchases of other energy companies in recent years.

“Make no mistake, if that pipe is canceled, it certainly is balance sheet destructive, and it will impact Dominion’s growth rate,” said Shar Pourreza, an analyst who follows Dominion as Guggenheim Partners’ managing director for North American power and utilities.

Dominion has some heavy-hitters on its side, with support from 18 state attorneys general, more than 60 members of Congress, trade associations and labor unions.

A host of environmentalists, land owners and communities along the pipeline route have urged the Supreme Court to uphold the 4th Circuit’s ruling.

Dominion says the pipeline will bring a critical new gas supply to Virginia and North Carolina to support the shift away from coal and toward intermittent natural resources like solar. The company also says greater availability of natural gas will attract manufacturing businesses.

Critics question the assertion that the gas is needed.

In a brief filed with the Supreme Court, Virginia Attorney General Mark Herring’s office said recent analyses indicate the demand for natural gas will remain flat or decrease for the foreseeable future.

In an earnings call with investment analysts earlier this month, Dominion CEO Tom Farrell said the company is “optimistic” that the Supreme Court will issue an order reversing the 4th Circuit ruling in May or June. He said Dominion is working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a separate permit related to endangered species and then anticipates resuming construction “across major portions of the pipeline.”

But opponents of the project emphasize that six other permits have been revoked or suspended, including a permit to build a gas compressor station in the historic African American community of Union Hill in Virginia.

“The bottom line is, no matter what happens on Monday, there are others issues,” said Lew Freeman, executive director of the Allegheny-Blue Ridge Alliance, a nonprofit coalition of 51 organizations opposing the pipeline.

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Uncommon California trout species returns to native habitat

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For the primary time in practically a century, a uncommon California trout species will swim in a mountain creek that’s its native habitat, marking a significant milestone that conservationists hope will result in a thriving inhabitants and elimination of its threatened standing.

About 30 Paiute cutthroat trout will probably be plucked Wednesday from Coyote Valley Creek within the japanese Sierra Nevada wilderness and hauled in cans strapped to pack mules about 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) west into Lengthy Valley. State and federal researchers will probably be readily available because the fish are dumped right into a stretch of Silver King Creek at round 8,000 ft (2,438 meters) elevation, the place the shimmering species glided by way of the chilly water for hundreds of years beneath a waterfall earlier than they began disappearing within the 1920s.

Paiute are eye-catching for his or her “purplish iridescent hue” and a scarcity of physique spots that mark lots of the 14 subspecies of cutthroat trout, mentioned Invoice Somer, senior environmental scientist with the California Division of Fish and Wildlife.

“The colour is sort of onerous to explain and actually onerous to {photograph},” he mentioned. “You possibly can solely see how distinctive they’re when you catch them and maintain them in your hand.”

The homecoming in Alpine County is the end result of many years of restoration and conservation work that obtained a lift in 1967, when the Paiute cutthroat obtained federal safety as one of many first animals listed below the Endangered Species Act, mentioned Somer. It was upgraded to threatened standing in 1975.

Threats to the Paiute cutthroat trout included overfishing, illness, interbreeding and competitors with non-native trout.

The species was inadvertently saved within the early 1900s when sheepherders within the space transported a few of the fish right into a beforehand fishless portion of Silver King Creek above Llewellyn Falls. The falls prevented non-native fish from reaching that stretch of water and stored the Paiute remoted and the genetic pool pure.

Simply as restoration efforts have been ramping up beneath the falls, California was hit with a drought in 2011 that lasted for six years.

“The drought was a setback. With out snow cowl within the winter at elevation, the stream actually freezes stable from the underside up,” Somer mentioned. “It is a main drawback for trout all through the West.”

From 2013 to 2015, 11 miles (18 kilometers) of Silver King Creek and three tributaries have been handled with a fish toxicant, rotenone, to take away all non-native species. That was step one of the five-part restoration plan that might get the Paiute off the threatened species record throughout the subsequent decade or so, Somer mentioned.

Step two is Wednesday’s restoration of the species to its historic habitat.

“The most important hurdles are one and two,” he mentioned. “That is why that is undoubtedly an occasion.”

There will probably be one other transport by mule from Coyote Valley subsequent yr to make sure the Silver King inhabitants hits about 2,500 and is self-sustaining, Somer mentioned.

About 100 miles (161 kilometers) north in neighboring Nevada, officers are making fish-friendly modifications to a dam that for greater than a century blocked off spawning grounds for Lahontan cutthroat trout, a threatened relative of the Paiute cutthroat. Groundbreaking occurred this month for a $23.5 million fish-passage undertaking to assist Lahontan cutthroat navigate the Truckee River’s Derby Dam east of Reno.

The Endangered Species Act is credited with serving to save the bald eagle, California condor and scores of different animals and vegetation from extinction since President Richard Nixon signed it into legislation in 1973. The act presently protects greater than 1,600 species in america and its territories.

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2019 new BMW R1250GS HP Version studio +technical particulars & motion images



2019 new BMW R1250GS HP Version studio +technical particulars & motion images
An summary of the highlights of the brand new BMW R 1250 GS:
• Additional developed boxer engine with BMW ShiftCam Know-how for variation of the valve timings and valve stroke on the consumption aspect.
• Much more energy throughout the complete engine velocity vary, optimised gas consumption and emission ranges, elevated working smoothness and refinement.
• Elevated output and torque: 100 kW (136 hp) at 7 750 rpm and 143 Nm at 6 250 rpm (beforehand: 92 kW (125 hp) at 7 750 rpm and 125 Nm at 6 500 rpm.
• Capability elevated to 1 254 cc (beforehand: 1 170 cc).
• Asynchronous valve opening on the consumption aspect for optimised swirl and subsequently simpler combustion.
• Camshaft drive now through toothed chain (beforehand curler chain)
• Optimised oil provide and piston base cooling.
• Knock sensor system for optimised journey suitability.
• Newest era of BMS-O engine management and use of twin-jet injection valves for much more efficient carburetion.
• New exhaust system for optimum efficiency traits. • New extra entrance spoiler on the R 1250 RT. • Two using modes, ASC and Hill Begin Management as normal.
• Using Modes Professional, that includes extra using modes, Dynamic Traction Management DTC, ABS Professional (normal within the R 1250 RT), Hill Begin Management Professional and Dynamic Brake Assistant DBC, obtainable as an optionally available tools merchandise ex works.
Digital suspension Dynamic ESA “Subsequent Era” with totally automated load compensation.
• Along with normal adjustability of seat peak (exception: HP model for the R 1250 GS), wide selection of seat peak variants ex works.
• LED headlamp for the R 1250 GS as normal and LED daytime using mild for each fashions as an ex works optionally available tools merchandise.
Connectivity: multifunctional instrument cluster with 6.5-inch full-colour TFT display screen and quite a few options as normal within the R 1250 GS.
• Clever Emergency Name as an ex works possibility.
• BMW Motorrad Spezial – customisation options as optionally available tools objects ex works.
• Prolonged vary of optionally available tools objects and BMW Motorrad Equipment.
• The brand new R 1250 GS: journey and off-road prowess in two trendy fundamental finishes and two placing model variants.

R 1250 GS HP
Within the model model HP the brand new R 1250 GS emphasises its sporty ambitions, dynamically showcasing its off-road experience as a journey enduro with the color mixture Gentle White/Racing Blue metallic/Racing Pink.
Gentle White is to be discovered on the primary body and together with graphics on the gas tank aspect trim components and entrance wheel cowl, whereas Racing Blue is utilized to the central gas tank cowl.
The masculine, sturdy character of the journey enduro is borne out within the model HP by way of black matt for the ability unit, black Telelever slider
tubes and extra components such because the prolonged entrance wheel cowl and body guard. On this color variant, too, the tube handlebars, entrance trim holders and baggage bridge are completed in black. The brand new R 1250 GS additionally displays its enhanced off-road competence with a radiator guard, finely wrought cross-spoke wheels, a radiator trim in stainless-steel and golden brake calipers. The brand new R 1250 S can also be given a very sporty, agile and energetic using look by way of a black rear body and the Rallye seat in HP color scheme.

Milled Components Bundle HP – sporty, dynamic aptitude via easy colouring with highly effective accentuations.
A lot of the surfaces are anodized in black, whereby
some milled surfaces are emphasised with a pure aluminium look. Milled components with a blue anodized coating and the blue plastic sliders on the cylinder head covers give the HP Milled Components Bundle a sporty look.

HP sports activities silencer.
HP sports activities silencers by Akrapovic_ can be found ex works for each new boxer fashions. The slip-on silencers in sporty design are made fully of titanium, making them 0.5 kg lighter than the usual silencer.

Authentic BMW Motorrad Equipment. HP Components.
HP sports activities silencer.
HP covers for enlargement tank (ML: Q1/2019).
HP rider footrests, adjustable (ML: Q1/2019).
HP engine housing cap, entrance (ML: Q1/2019).
HP foot lever, adjustable (ML: Q1/2019).
HP hand lever, adjustable (ML: Q1/2019).
HP oil filler plug (ML: Q1/2019).
HP abrasion pads for cylinder head covers (ML: Q1/2019).
HP mirror ML: Q1/2019).
HP cylinder head covers (ML: Q1/2019).

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Wind strikes big wildfire away from nuke amenities in Idaho

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The most important wildfire on the nation’s major nuclear analysis facility in current historical past had been burning near buildings containing nuclear gasoline and different radioactive materials however a change in wind route Wednesday was pushing the flames into open vary on the sprawling website in Idaho, officers mentioned.

The lightning-caused hearth on the Idaho Nationwide Laboratory is one in every of a number of throughout the U.S. West.

Earlier than the wind shifted, the Idaho blaze bought near a number of lab amenities, together with one the place high-level radioactive supplies are studied and one other holding a nuclear reactor, spokeswoman Kerry Martin mentioned.

The lab has a number of security measures for wildfires that usually ignite in southeastern Idaho’s desert rangeland, together with clearing floor round every constructing and having a number of specifically educated hearth crews stationed across the website that is practically the dimensions of Rhode Island.

“It isn’t our first rodeo,” Martin mentioned. “We’ve got hearth stations, lots of hearth tools, we’ve got educated firefighters and tools to chop obstacles.”

The wildfire that ignited Monday is estimated to have burned about 172 sq. miles (445 sq. kilometers). Non-essential laboratory workers have been evacuated.

The nuclear analysis website contains reactors and analysis supplies, in addition to amenities for processing high-level nuclear waste and different radioactive waste.

In the meantime, rain in a forested Arizona metropolis helped firefighters battle a wildfire that has raged for days in a scenic mountain go however is elevating the danger of flooding, officers mentioned.

As much as 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) of rain allowed crews to immediately assault the fireplace, extinguish flames and construct containment traces in an space the place practically three sq. miles (eight sq. kilometers) have burned since Sunday, based on hearth administration group spokesman Steve Kleist.

Forecasters warned of doable flooding due to thunderstorms anticipated Wednesday and Thursday to drench fire-scarred areas within the Coconino Nationwide Forest surrounding Flagstaff, a well-liked mountain getaway within the largest ponderosa pine forest within the U.S.

Residents ordered to evacuate greater than two dozen houses this week have been being allowed to return.

Ladd Vagen, his spouse and two daughters have been staying at a lodge. He mentioned he is curious to scope out the panorama after they go dwelling Wednesday however believes the group “is in simply nice form.” 

Nonetheless, the household can be on discover they could should flee once more.

“I do not assume we will unload our automobiles,” Vagen mentioned. “We could unload minimally and do a greater job of organizing what we will take if we return to ‘go’ standing.”

Arizona has declared an emergency, releasing up funding to battle the blaze. The firefighting price up to now is $2.1 million, incident commander Wealthy Nieto mentioned.

———

Related Press author Paul Davenport in Phoenix contributed to this report.

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Prime recreation spots could be altered by Arizona wildfire

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The labyrinth of trails welcomed the novice to professional mountain bikers. The elevation, the groves of aspen, the frogs croaking in shallow water and the sweeping views kept them coming back.

As a wildfire burns in a mountain valley outside Flagstaff, locals are wondering how the landscape will change.

“Those trails are probably cooked,” said Kyle Hornbeck, who owns a bicycle shop in town.

The fire has grown to 2.8 square miles (7.2 square kilometers) in the Coconino National Forest in a prime spot for recreation. Forecasters warned Tuesday that storm runoff could cause flooding in Flagstaff because of rain on the mountain watershed where the fire scarred forested slopes.

Horseback riders, campers, hikers and mountain bikers were the first ordered to leave Sunday, followed Monday evening by people in more than a dozen large, scattered homes.

Thousands of other people living amid the country’s largest contiguous Ponderosa pine forest have been told to be ready to evacuate by packing three days of supplies.

Mountain bikers frequently ride the trails around Mount Elden to train for the region’s biggest races. The dirt tracks are within minutes of downtown Flagstaff, offering steep climbs in elevation, technical downhill riding and design-your-own loops.

The bikers often are the ones maintaining them, removing fallen trees and other debris, Hornbeck said.

Around Flagstaff, no other network like it exists.

“That’s where the good surf is, akin to that notion,” Hornbeck said.

For a while, a project to thin dense stands of trees and remove other debris kept the public out of a section of the trails in what’s known as Dry Lake Hills. When they returned recently, mountain bikers rode past piles of logs and branches still waiting to be picked up.

The fire started in that area, where campfires always are banned because of the threat of wildfire despite most of the national forest around Flagstaff being free of fire restrictions. Officials say the fire is human-caused but haven’t determined what exactly sparked the blaze.

The areas thinned by a mix of helicopter logging and crews with chain saws should burn cooler than a fire moving over the untouched landscape, said Jay Smith, forest restoration director for Coconino County. But, the concern remains for flooding.

“I’m curious to see if the thinning efforts did their job, what we intended them to do,” he said.

A top-tier federal management team took over the fire late Monday, bringing with it more resources to fight the blaze. At one point, more than a dozen aircraft, including four air tankers, were dropping fire retardant and water over the fire. Hundreds of people on the ground worked to build containment lines.

Firefighters are expecting much-needed rain Tuesday accompanied by what could be erratic winds at times that could shift the fire’s direction, a “mixed blessing,” said fire information officer Steve Kliest.

In a grocery store parking lot where smoke filled the air, Justina Ferrara and her grandmother shopped for a carpeted tree house of sorts for a cat. The women got a pre-evacuation notice and have set aside important documents, old photographs and treasured family heirlooms.

An air tanker flying behind them dropped a line of red slurry across the mountain top, trying to shield communications towers from the fire. Rain briefly hit the ground.

Ferrara isn’t worried about their home; she’s worried about the mountain itself.

“It’s the devastation to what’s going on in the vegetation,” she said. “It’s not going to come back anytime soon.”

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Ski resorts not just for winter anymore

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Ski resorts are not just for winter anymore.

In an effort to expand revenue opportunities in shortening ski seasons, mountain resorts have started offering more activities for the warmer months.

Ski resorts have always drawn people to the mountain for summer hiking, biking and horseback riding.

Now you can ride a zip line, attack obstacle and ropes courses, play Frisbee golf or ride a giant mountain slide.

Most ski resorts offer lift rides to the top for sunrise, sunset or just to take in the great views. Some open the restaurants at the top for a summertime, mountaintop meal or drink.

There are even rock walls on ski mountains so people can feel like they’re climbing on, well, a mountain.

Mountain coasters have become one of the most popular summer ski resorts attractions. The cars are usually shaped like bobsleds and run down sloped hills, gravity creating speeds up to 25 mph.

Europe has been the spot for mountain coasters for years — the Glacier 3000 in Gstaad, Switzerland is a must-try — but the thrill rides have been popping up at ski resorts across the United States.

For more about what ski resorts are doing to lure visitors off season, check out the latest episode of the “Get Outta Here” podcast.

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Boy Scout ranch focuses on wildfire recovery as season nears

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Tucked away in the foothills of the southern Rockies, the Philmont Scout Ranch has become a holy grail, its stretches of untamed wilderness and challenging backcountry treks drawing more than 1 million Boy Scouts and other adventurers from across the United States over the past 80 years.

For many of those who have spent time at the mountain retreat, they can’t get enough. It gets in the blood, it’s infectious and it’s the reason there was so much heartbreak last year when a wildfire ripped through the heart of the ranch.

Dozens of miles of trails were wiped out along with campsites, leaving behind a scar that will take years and millions of dollars to restore.

The work is necessary, ranch managers and troop leaders say, pointing to Philmont as a crown jewel of the scouting experience.

“There’s just a real sense of loss, kind of a grieving process so to speak,” said Roger Hoyt, a longtime Scout leader and Philmont’s general manager. “But at the end of the day, nature does renew itself and I think from the tragedy and the heartache comes this sense of renewal and opportunity.”

More than a half-million dollars already has been raised and the rebuilding effort is well underway with the installation of 85 new campsites and work to shore up some of the ash-covered hillsides.

Crews were sidelined in January due to snow, but work has resumed in the lower elevations as the clock ticks down for the start of the summer season.

And it will be a banner season with a record number of Scouts — possibly as many as 24,000 — expected to pass through Philmont, Hoyt said. Some of them initially planned to make the trek in 2018 but were derailed due to the fire and the subsequent closure of the backcountry.

With nearly one-fifth of Philmont blackened, the ranch is not alone in its new mission to become more resilient as western land managers face larger and hotter wildfires fueled by overgrown forests and dry conditions.

In 2018, more than 8.7 million acres (13,594 square miles) burned across the U.S., with most of that being in the West, according to the National Interagency Fire Center . Records were broken in California, which marked its deadliest and most destructive blaze in November as the town of Paradise was destroyed and 85 people were killed.

Scientists have said the 2018 season was part of a longer trend of larger and more frequent fires in the western United States.

In New Mexico, more than 382,000 acres (597 square miles) burned in 2018 and the state has seen its largest and most destructive fires on record within the last decade.

Hoyt estimates Philmont Scout Ranch will spend $1 million in the next year on conservation and fire mitigation projects. That includes addressing silt that’s washing down from barren slopes to clearing fuel from the forest floor, thinning trees and creating fuel breaks to keep fires from racing across other parts of the ranch.

While the work is relatively low-cost, it’s labor intensive, Hoyt said.

In March alone, 140 volunteers spent over 6,000 hours on fire mitigation and restoration projects.

Within two years, he hopes pockets of the burned area can be used as an outdoor classroom for visiting Scouts.

On the other side of the country, members of Troop 715 are preparing for this summer’s journey to Philmont. The Richmond, Virginia-based group was gathering over the weekend for a 2-mile (3-kilometer) backpacking trip so they could learn about what gear to take and what to leave behind. They’ll eventually work up to covering 10 miles (16 kilometers) a day.

Then there’s the first aid training and other skills that will help when they’re far from civilization, said Scout Master Steve Tyler, who will be accompanied by his sons, including one who is an Eagle Scout and will have just graduated the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

Aside from being immersed in what Tyler calls “big sky country,” he said another highlight is summiting Baldy Mountain — a 12,441-foot (3,793-meter) peak on Philmont’s northern boundary not far from the Colorado border.

“Around here, the horizon is about 100 yards away and you’re looking at a tall oak tree,” Tyler said of his Virginia surroundings. “So it’s very, very different out there. It is a special experience.”

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Scientists release most detailed map of Teton quake fault

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Scientists have completed the most detailed map yet of one of North America’s most spectacular geologic faults with the hope of providing a better understanding of the earthquake risk at a popular vacation destination.

Millions of tourists visit Jackson Hole, Wyoming, every year to sightsee, hike or ski the Teton Range, which was formed by the Teton fault.

Upward slippage of the fault’s western edge has pushed the mountains to their present height of some 7,000 feet (2,130 meters) above Jackson Hole in Grand Teton National Park.

The fault ranks among the fastest moving in the Rocky Mountain region. Scientists think it could produce an earthquake as powerful as magnitude 7.5, which would cause serious damage.

Research shows the Teton fault last ruptured more than 5,000 years ago. Whether the fault is overdue for a big quake is unknown, geologists said Friday.

“We’re always speaking in geologic time, which is thousands of years or hundreds of thousands of years,” Wyoming State Geologist Erin Campbell said.

Earthquakes are common in the region. In 1959, a magnitude-7.3 quake in a different fault area west of Yellowstone National Park in Montana killed 28 people, many of them buried by a landslide that blocked the Madison River.

The Wyoming State Geological Survey released the new map of the Teton fault this week. Copies may be downloaded for free or purchased online for $25.

Researchers created the map with equipment that involves using laser pulses to measure distances precisely.

Aircraft with the equipment flew up and down the Teton fault to create precise images of the terrain, helping geologists pinpoint the fault’s location.

Geologists who study the fault often focus on scarps revealing the fault line at the foot of the mountains. There, they’ve dug trenches to look closely at how the fault has moved since the last glacial period ended 15,000 years ago.

Landslides and lakes cover the fault in places but scarps up to 125 feet (38 meters) high make its exact location obvious in others.

“It almost appears like a wall in the forest in some spots,” said the map’s lead author, Mark Zellman, of earth sciences consulting firm BGC Engineering Inc.

U.S. Geological Survey research geologist Christopher DuRoss and Idaho State University geology professor Glenn Thackray also helped create the map, which extends the fault about six miles (10 kilometers) farther south than was previously known.

Seth Wittke of the Wyoming State Geological Survey and others reviewed the work and went to the field to check its accuracy.

“This is a good kind of starting point in defining the fault itself, and some work that’s been done along it, for future research,” Wittke said.

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Follow Mead Gruver at https://twitter.com/meadgruver



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