Tag Archives: dairy

Why does Swiss cheese have holes?


There are literally thousands of sorts of cheese, every with its personal colour, form, dietary worth, taste and texture.

Since cheese is produced from milk, cheese sorts are likely to differ based mostly on the supply of milk. Among the hottest cheeses are produced from the milk of cows, goats and sheep. However there are additionally cheeses produced from camel milk, water buffalo milk – even moose milk.

To make cheese, you’ll want to add micro organism to the milk. These create chemical reactions that trigger it to alter into a mix of strong “curds” and liquid “whey.” The whey is mostly drained off, concentrated and dried right into a powder.

Variations within the quantity and kind of micro organism affect the style and texture of the ultimate product. Different points issue into the kind of cheese that’s produced: the salting methodology, its temperature and the way lengthy cheesemakers age it, which refers back to the period of time it’s left alone to ripen and kind. Some cheeses are aged for so long as 18 years.

Like many different cheeses, Swiss cheese is made with cow’s milk and comprises micro organism that assist convert the milk right into a strong.

So why does Swiss cheese have holes? Additionally referred to as “eyes,” they’re so important to Swiss cheese that once they’re lacking, the cheesemakers say the batch is “blind.”

What makes Swiss cheese “holey” is further micro organism referred to as Propionibacterium freudenrichii subspecies shermaniiP. shermanii for brief. Below the precise situations that Swiss cheese is made, the P. shermanii produce a gasoline: carbon dioxide.

As a result of Swiss cheese is made at a heat temperature – round 70 levels Fahrenheit – the cheese is comfortable and malleable. In order the micro organism develop, the gases they emit find yourself creating spherical openings. Consider blowing a bubble with chewing gum: As you blow air out of your lungs, the strain forces the gum right into a circle. The bubble ultimately pops, resulting from air strain out of your lungs or the ambiance.

However when a bubble has shaped inside a hunk of heat cheese – after which that cheese is cooled to round 40°F – the outlet stays in place. The cheese now has its eyes.

It takes about 4 weeks at 70°F for the eyes to kind. In complete, it takes about six weeks to make Swiss cheese, after which it’s aged two further months earlier than it’s bought.

Swiss cheese was first made in Switzerland within the 15th century. However there, it’s often known as “emmental” or “emmentaller.”

Different nations are additionally identified for cheeses which might be just like Swiss cheese. France has Gruyere, whereas Italy has Fontina. Within the U.S., cheesemakers concoct a modified model, referred to as Child Swiss, which tends to have smaller eyes. Gouda cheese – which originated within the Netherlands – is usually deliberately made with cultures that produce a bit of little bit of gasoline and tiny eyes.

However most often, cheesemakers truly attempt to forestall the formation of gasoline of their cheeses. Particularly in tougher cheeses, gasoline doesn’t result in good, spherical eyes; as a substitute, it kinds unpleasant crevices, cracks and splits.


Stephanie Clark, Virginia M. Gladney Professor of Meals Science and Human Diet, Iowa State College

This text was first revealed on The Dialog. Learn the unique article.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed on this article are these of the writer and don’t mirror the official stance of The Jakarta Publish.


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U.S. importers stockpile Parmigiano, Provolone as tariffs on EU cheeses loom


By Andrea Shalal and Aleksandra Michalska

Parmesan cheese is seen packaged within the warehouse at Ambriola Co Inc, a unit of Gennaro Auricchio SpA, one in every of Italy’s largest cheese producers, in West Caldwell, New Jersey, U.S., October 4, 2019. REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton

WASHINGTON/WEST CALDWELL, New Jersey (Reuters) – Ambriola Co Inc’s mammoth warehouse in West Caldwell, New Jersey, is crammed filled with packing containers and wheels of more durable cheeses similar to Parmigiano Reggiano, Pecorino Romano and Grana Padano – and extra is coming, tons extra.

Phil Marfuggi, president and chief government officer of Ambriola, a unit of Auricchio SpA, one in every of Italy’s largest cheese producers, is among the many many importers and store homeowners throughout the nation who’re scrambling to stockpile European cheeses earlier than new U.S. tariffs kick in on Oct. 18 in efforts to defend customers from worth hikes.

The Trump administration on Wednesday slapped 25% tariffs on cheese and different European Union merchandise starting from whisky to woolens, in retaliation for EU subsidies on giant plane. Either side say they’re open to negotiations, however commerce consultants see little likelihood of averting the duties – at the least within the quick run.

Importers started ordering tens of millions of {dollars} of additional wheels of Parmigiano Reggiano and different more durable cheeses after the U.S. Commerce Consultant’s workplace in July added cheese to its listing of EU merchandise doubtlessly going through tariffs because of the dispute over plane subsidies.

“When that listing got here out, that’s after I … began bringing in lots of extra containers of cheese of Reggiano, Provolone,” stated Marfuggi, who has one other 21 delivery containers filled with cheese en path to be added to the stockpile within the firm’s warehouse in Caldwell, which sits about 15 miles west of Manhattan.

Marfuggi stated he ordered an additional $15 million of cheeses that may very well be saved for over a 12 months to make sure satisfactory provides for current prospects and shield pricing via the tip of the 12 months.

“I’ve been build up stock … as a result of we’ve got a goal on our backs,” he stated.

The brand new duties may slash U.S. imports of EU cheeses valued at $1.5 billion a 12 months by 30% and jack up costs throughout the nation, stated Marfuggi, who additionally serves as president of the Cheese Importers Affiliation of America.

Some higher-priced objects will merely disappear from shops, he predicted, like Moliterno al Tartufo, an aged Italian cheese with an intense truffle taste. Even Parmigiano Reggiano may very well be in danger if costs rose to $30 a pound, he stated.

“There are going to be some objects … that the supermarkets are simply not going to deal with anymore. It’ll be worth prohibitive for that,” he stated.

The tariffs will hit shopper costs and finally jobs throughout the US, stated Ralph Hoffman, government vice chairman of Schuman Cheese, one of many largest importers of exhausting Italian cheeses.

Over 20,000 U.S. retail shops starting from Costco Wholesale Corp (COST.O) to Wegmans Meals Markets promote EU cheeses. These cheeses generate some $3.5 billion of income for U.S. firms, supporting some 20,000 jobs, together with patrons, deli clerks, truck drivers and warehouse employees, Hoffman stated. He famous that the brand new tariffs come on prime of current duties of round 15%.

Specialty grocer The Recent Market expects the tariffs to have an effect on about 35% of the 200 cheeses it carries at its 160 shops.

“We’re ready to see how the importers are going to move the associated fee alongside,” stated Andrew Harvell, who heads the corporate’s cheese division. “All the things’s nonetheless up within the air,” he stated, including that Recent Market had pre-ordered sufficient cheese to final via the vacation season, however may have to boost costs quickly thereafter.

Mike Bowers, the third-generation proprietor of a specialty cheese store at Washington’s storied Japanese Market, stated he started hoarding further wheels of exhausting cheeses – some weighing as a lot as 80 kilos – in July when USTR first introduced it may impose tariffs on cheese and different agricultural items.

His glass cheese counters, coolers and enormous walk-in fridge are stuffed to overflowing, however Bowers stated his provides won’t final via the vacation season. He stated he must move on the price of the tariffs.

“I’m a small man. I can’t purchase a $100 cheese and promote it for $50 and count on to remain in enterprise too lengthy,” he stated.

“I’ve a stockpile of cheese to be sure that I’m capable of preserve stock and preserve gross sales at my counter,” Bowers stated. “After which as time goes on, we’ll must see.”

He stated the standard of U.S. cheeses was bettering, offering good alternate options for some in style European cheeses, however he must discover methods to be extra “progressive” sooner or later.

He additionally has a stable choice available of Swiss cheeses that aren’t topic to EU tariffs, together with a Gruyere-style L’Etivaz, made in copper pots in line with historical custom.

Marfuggi stated it was a reduction that USTR opted for 25% tariffs as an alternative of the 100% charge initially proposed, however he worries that patrons would swap to home or different international provides if the tariffs stayed in place a very long time.

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“If that occurs, you’re going to lose a substantial quantity of shopper base, and it’s exhausting to win that again,” he stated.

And cheese hoarding can’t resolve all of the anticipated shortages, he warned. Many softer cheeses can’t be saved for almost as lengthy, so costs of these objects will seemingly rise rapidly.

“If you happen to’re a Gorgonzola lover, you’re positively out of luck,” Marfuggi stated.

Reporting by Andrea Shalal and Aleksandra Michalska; Extra reporting by Richa Naidu; Modifying by Heather Timmons and Leslie Adler

Our Requirements:The Thomson Reuters Belief Ideas.


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Canada’s Food Guide: The end of the milk doctrine?


Sylvain Charlebois is a professor in food distribution and policy at Dalhousie University

The four food group categories that most Canadians know by heart seem to be on their way out. Health Canada has announced it will finally release its long-awaited new food guide in the spring of this year. But the new guide will likely challenge many of our preconceptions about food itself. Information leaked recently suggests that dairy products will no longer have their own category. In fact, milk and other dairy products will now be only one of more than 28 different food items that Health Canada intends to encourage Canadians to eat more of. In doing so, Health Canada will not only show audacity, but for the first time in decades, it will give the food guide a new purpose.

The first food guide in Canada came out in 1942, in the middle of the Second World War. At the time, food security was a much more significant issue than it is today. The food guide was more of a tool to showcase Canadian agriculture and stimulate the rural economy. And why not? Our farmers needed the support and food sovereignty at the time had a different meaning. The initial guide had six food groups, instead of four.

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However, not much else has changed since 1942. Other than merging fruits with vegetables and eggs with meat products, and notwithstanding the addition of some nice colours and a few illustrations, the food guide we have today is similar to the one from decades ago.

While Canada has idled in updating its food guide, other countries have made significant progress. The United States systematically revises its food pyramid every five years. The country went from a Basic 7 model in 1943 to a more adaptable version now called MyPlate. Basic 7 and MyPlate are inherently different, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has just announced more changes coming in 2019. In Canada, our current food guide is already more than 12 years old. Revision cycles are longer, and changes over time have been modest at best. Along with several European countries, others such as Japan, Brazil and China have modernized their food policies. Most food guides around the world, unlike Canada’s, promote nutrients rather than specific food products.

But Canada apparently now intends to catch up with the rest of the world. Based on some information coming from Health Canada, the food guide will most likely depart from its humble initial purpose of sponsoring agriculture and will finally serve our quest for a better quality of life. Let’s face it, things have changed since 1942. Canadian agriculture is much more diverse, and much more trade focused. Food demand in Canada is more fragmented than ever, as a result of more immigration, and different lifestyles and values affecting food choices.

Changes to our food habits won’t come easily, though. A new approach will likely challenge entrenched conventions that have been protected and institutionalized for decades. If Health Canada does go ahead with the rumoured changes, proteins are certainly one area which will see significant shifts over time.

Dairy is represented by what most consider to be the most influential lobby group in Canadian agriculture, perhaps even in our entire economy. The group spends more than $80-million every year to encourage Canadians to drink milk and eat more dairy products. That’s almost $3 for every Canadian. The current food guide gives dairy a vital place in our diet at four servings a day. Supported by our supply management system for decades, dairy farmers have relied on long-standing, policy-driven support to make a living, from milk served in schools to seeing dairy products promoted at key events across the country. Everything made sense as the synchronicity between trade and domestic food policies was flawless.

But with three new trade deals, which have opened our market to more dairy products coming from abroad, a new food guide without a dairy category or a prescribed number of servings is the last thing the Canadian dairy sector wants. On the other hand, it is exactly what Canadians need – and more than ever. Nutritional security seems to be the new focus, and all Canadians deserve a food guide that can help them better understand how to lead healthier lives.

Obesity, especially among children, is at unacceptable levels in Canada. As well, food security remains a lingering issue influencing our nutritional choices, even in 2019. Welcome additions to the new guide encourage Canadians to value nutrition, to drink water, to consider where and how we eat and with whom. Just setting standards on portions and food products is fruitless.

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Regardless of what happens next, dairy farmers, while producing high-quality products for Canadians, will need to accept that their commodities are now part of a much larger portfolio of good, natural food ingredients. Milk and other dairy products will co-exist with several other commodity groups, which deserve as much attention, if not more.


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Tips for keeping your refrigerated and frozen food safe during power outages | Life


It is that time of year when we start to experience more frequent blustery weather, heavy precipitation and the possibility of snow and ice buildup on power lines, all of which can lead to an increased likelihood of power failures. We often receive questions regarding the safety of food after a power outage has occurred. However, to reduce the loss of food during one of these events, it is best to be prepared before it happens.

The first step to keeping your food safe is to have thermometers in your refrigerator and freezer. These can often be purchased at your local hardware store and are relatively inexpensive. Monitoring your refrigerator and freezer temperature will ensure your equipment is functioning properly and food is being held at the correct temperature (40 degrees or below in the refrigerator and zero or below in the freezer), regardless of the weather and power situation.

During an outage, the door to the refrigerator should be left closed as much as possible. As long as the power has been out for less than four hours, your food should still be safe. You will need to verify that the temperature of the refrigerator has not exceeded 40 degrees.

Perishable food, such as meat, poultry, eggs, dairy or leftovers, should be discarded if the temperature of the refrigerator has exceeded 40 for more than two hours. Foodsafety.gov has a list of which foods will need to be discarded and which can be kept if your refrigerator has exceeded these limits.

Keep your freezer door closed during the outage. When the power comes back on, you will need to check the freezer thermometer. If the thermometer reads 40 degrees or below, the food is still safe and can be re-frozen. The thermometer is the best way to ensure safety, but if you do not have a freezer thermometer, you can do a visual inspection of the food. If the food still contains ice crystals, it is safe to refreeze the food, but if no crystals are present then the food will need to be discarded.

To keep your food cold during a prolonged outage, you may consider buying bags of ice and placing them around food in the refrigerator or freezer. Another option is to remove the food and store it in coolers with plenty of ice. Be sure to keep meat, poultry, seafood and other items in a separate cooler away from foods that are ready to eat (e.g. produce, cheese, dairy). Keep the coolers, refrigerator or freezer well-stocked with ice to maintain the temperature at or below 40 degrees.

Regardless of the weather, never store food outside to keep it cold. Outside temperatures can vary widely, and the sun’s rays can cause heating of the packaging and surfaces to temperatures high enough to cause the food to become unsafe. Additionally, the food could easily be exposed to other unsafe conditions, such as blowing soil or contact with a variety of wild animals and your neighbor’s cat.

Most importantly, never taste food to see if it is still “good.” Even one small bite of food that was not held at the proper temperature could result in severe illness or death. Additionally, the appearance or odor of food, aside from determining if food still contains ice crystals, is not a reliable method of discerning whether the food is safe to eat.


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We Are What We Eat: Afghanistan | Nat Geo Live

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