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قديم 10-31-2012, 09:11 AM
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افتراضي mamogram

 

mamogram
Mammogram



Mammogram Introduction

A mammogram is a special X-ray examination of the breast made with specific X-ray equipment that can often find tumors too small to be felt. A mammogram is the best radiographic method available today to detect breast cancer early. It can detect around 75% of cancers at least a year before they can be felt by the doctor or patient herself.

 


A woman may experience significant distress, anxiety, and fear associated with the mammogram and with the prospect of discovering a tumor. However, the procedure itself is relatively simple. Most breast disorders are **t cancer, and even in the remaining number of cancer cases, more than 90% are curable, if detected early and promptly treated.
Although mammograms, like many other medical tests, are **t 100% accurate, scheduling a regular mammogram represents the best radiological way to find breast changes early before there are any obvious signs or symptoms of cancer. Several studies show that mammogram can reduce breast cancer deaths by more than a third.



History of Mammograms

Mammography started in 1960, but modern mammography has existed only since 1969 when the first X-ray units dedicated to breast imaging were available. By 1976, mammography as a screening device became standard practice. Its value in diag**sis was recognized. Mammography continues to improve as lower doses of radiation are detecting even smaller potential problems earlier.



Mammogram Risks

The benefit of mammography screening outweighs the risk of any harm from the radiation. Currently it is estimated that ionizing radiation needed for a mammogram is lower than the dose of cosmic radiation to which a passenger on an intercontinental flight may be exposed, or a skier on a mountain over 3,000 meters. Use of a low dose radiation gives doctors the ability to repeat the mammogram once a year, beginning after age 40 to 50 years. A mammogram could be prescribed for women with personal or family history of cancer of the breast or other organs, regardless of her age.
Those patients who have **t entered me**pause need to make sure they are **t pregnant before obtaining a mammogram, due to the small potential radiation exposure.
For women who have a breast implant, there is an extremely small chance that the pressure placed on the implant during the mammography will cause a rupture or break. If this occurs, a surgical operation may be needed to have the implant *******.
In a very small number of cases, the accuracy of the mammogram is lower than usual.
  • For women with breast implants, the ability of mammography to detect ab**rmalities lowers from 92% to 33% because the content of the implant (a gel or a liquid) may block the view and because the scar tissue surrounding the implant tightens. Additional X-ray views may be required, and other imaging tests such as MRI may be required in this population.
  • False-positive readings on a mammogram occur when cancer is **t present, but a mammogram is read as ab**rmal. Most of these false-positive readings will turn out **t to be cancer. At all ages, 5% 10% of mammograms are ab**rmal and are followed up with additional testing (a fine-needle aspiration [or sampling], surgical biopsy, or ultrasound).
  • False-negative findings occur when mammograms appear **rmal even though breast cancer is actually present and are more common in younger women than in older women. Currently, the rate of false-negatives in mammography is around 8% to 10%.

 





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