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قديم 10-09-2012, 05:54 PM
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افتراضي Glossary of ab**rmal breath sound

Glossary of ab**rmal breath sound
Accessory muscles of respiration – muscles other than the diaphragm and intercostal muscles that may be used for labored breathing. The ster**cleidomastoid, spinal, and neck muscles may be used as accessory muscles of respiration; their use is a sign of an ab**rmal or labored breathing pattern.

Adventitious breath sounds – ab**rmal breath sounds heard when listening to the chest. Adventitious sounds may include *****les or rales, rhonchi or wheezes, or pleural friction rubs. Adventitious sounds do **t include sounds produced by muscular activity in the chest wall or **ises made by a stethoscope on the chest wall.

Ataxic breathing – also k**wn as Biot's breathing, is characterized by unpredictable irregularity.

Barrel chest – a condition characterized by increased anterior-posterior chest diameter caused by increased functional residual capacity due to air trapping from small airway collapse. A barrel chest is frequently seen in patients with chronic obstructive diseases, such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Cheyne-Stokes respirations – a breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea, followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations.

Consolidation – the replacement of air in the lungs with fluid or a mass.

*****les – an adventitious breath sound heard on ausculating the chest, produced by air passing over airway secretions. A *****le is a discontinuous sound, as opposed to a wheeze, which is continuous. *****les are k**wn as fine or coarse and are also k**wn as rales.

Fremitus – a vibration felt while a patient is speaking and the examiner's hand is held against the chest.

Intercostal retractions – visible use of the muscles between the ribs (intercostal muscles) to aid in breathing. Intercostal retractions are a sign of labored breathing.

Kussmal breathing – a very deep gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis and coma.

Kyphosis – a deformity in the **rmal posterior shape of the spine, producing a humpback appearance.

Nasal flaring – intermittent outward movements of the **strils with each inspiration; indicates an increase in the work needed to breathe.

Pleura – a serous membrane covering both lungs and the walls of the thorax and diaphragm.

Pursed lip breathing – partial closing of the lips to allow air to be expired slowly; used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sibilant rhonchi – a high pitched wheeze; musical and squeaky adventitious breath sound.

Scoliosis – a lateral curvature of the spine.

So**rous rhonchi - a lower pitched wheeze; s**ring or moaning adventitious breath sound.

Stridor – a high-pitched harsh sound heard during inspiration. Stridor is caused by obstruction of the upper airway.

Wheeze - an adventitious or ab**rmal breath sound heard when listening to the chest as a person breathes. Wheezes are continuous and musical sounding, and usually caused by airway obstruction from swelling or secretions. Wheezes can be high or low pitched, and are also k**wn as rhonchi.
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